3GPP- 3rd Generation Partnership Project. A cooperation of standards organizations (ARIB, CWTS, ETSI, T1, TTA and TTC) that develops the technical specifications for IMT-2000, or 3G. 3GPP manages the W-CDMA technology, and 3GPP2 manages the CDMA2000 technology, all of which increase data rates for 3G wireless communications. See IMT-2000.
4G - (also known as Beyond 3G), an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation, is a term used to describe the next complete evolution in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations.
ARPU - Average Revenue Per User. A key business performance metric in the wireless industry.
Air Interface - The system for encoding radio signals in a wireless network. For example, TDMA, CDMA, AMPS.
AMPS - Analog cellular service. The original cellular mobile phone air interface, which uses conventional radio frequency modulation, and has no digital compression. Although call quality is inferior, battery life suffers, and few value-added services are compatible, AMPS still is used widely in rural and developing areas, due to the high-range of signals, and the low cost of maintaining existing systems.
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Baseband - IPWireless third-generation Baseband Processor
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access. A digital method for simultaneously transmitting signals over a shared portion of the spectrum by coding each distinct signal with a code ship. Terminals receive the aggregated signal from the tower, ad use specific codes to unbundle the signals. CDMA devices are noted for their excellent connection quality and long battery life.
CPE - Customer Premisis Equipment. Required equipment that is located on the customer's premises.
CPU - Central Processor Unit
CTS - Clear To Send (modem control line)
DAC - Digital-to-Analogue Converter
EDGE - Enhanced Data GPRS Evolution. EDGE is a software upgrade that improves GPRS throughput to a theoretical 200Kbps. Some GSM carriers in the US and EU are planning to offer EDGE networks as an improvement of their data networks before they upgrade to UMTS.
FDD - Frequency Division Duplexing. A transmission method that separates the transmitting and receiving channels with a guard band (some amount of spectrum that acts as a buffer or insulator). Allows two-way data transmission by, in effect, opening two distinct radio links. Contrast with TDD.
Flash OFDM - Flash Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) - a network node that acts as a gateway between a GPRS wireless data network and other networks such as the Internet or private networks.
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service. An enhancement to the GSM mobile communications system that supports data packets. GPRS enables continuous flows of IP data packets over the system for such applications as Web browsing and file transfer. GPRS differs from GSM's short messaging service (GSM-SMS) which is limited to messages of 160 bytes in length.
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications (formerly Groupe Speciale Mobile). A digital cellular phone technology based on TDMA that is the predominant system in Europe, but is also used widely around the world. Developed in the 1980s, GSM was first deployed in seven European countries in 1992. Operating in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz PCS band in the U.S., GSM defines the entire cellular system, not just the air interface.
Handoff - Handoff refers to the transfer of a communication link from one POP to another, while the subscriber is moving through the network. Handoffs are by their nature automatic, but not necessarily undetectable. Some handoffs may impart a noticeable delay or temporary disconnection, while a seamless handoff means that the subscriber can remain completely unaware that any change has occurred.
HLR - Home Location Register. The HLR and VLR are the integral components that enable cellular roaming. Each HLR is a carrier's database containing authorization data on all the subscribers a particular local or home service area. When a subscriber roams to a new service area, the system does not recognize the subscriber, and requests roamer data from the appropriate HLR. In a seamless process, the roamer's authorization data is transferred via SS7 to the VLR (Visitor Location Register) in the new area, and the roamer's current location is transferred to the HLR.
HSDPA - is a 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4 Mbit/s. Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 42 Mbit/s downlink.
IMT-2000 - A framework from the ITU for third-generation (3G) wireless phone standards throughout the world that deliver high-speed multimedia data as well as voice. Formerly known as the Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System (FPLMTS), IMT-2000 supports various technologies that increase data rates such as W-CDMA and CDMA2000. Technical specifications for IMT-2000 are developed by 3GPP.
INC - Integrated Network Controller from IP Wireless
Integraged mobile broadcast (iMB) - Integrated Mobile Broadcast (iMB) is standardised as part of 3GPP Release 8 and is ideally placed to address the growing market for a global broadcast solution for mobile devices. The iMB standard harmonises the elements of existing 3GPP Release 7 WCDMA and TD-CDMA standards to achieve a unified solution incorporating the best technology from both.
IIM - Intercell interference cancellation
IP - Internet Protocol. The network layer protocol in the TCP/IP communications protocol suite (the "IP" in TCP/IP). IP contains a network address and allows messages to be routed to a different network or subnet. IP does not ensure delivery of a complete message, but the TCP transport layer is used to provide that guarantee. IP networks are error-resilient, and have multi-path redundancy. Digitally compressed packets of data are routed to their destination address whichever route is most appropriate at any given instant, such that different packets travel different routes. This is significantly different to POTS circuit-switched data, which holds a complete circuit open direct between source and destination.
LAN - Local Area Network. A communications network that serves users within a confined geographical area. It is made up of servers, workstations, a network operating system and a communications link.
most popular battery technology for notebooks, and it is widely used in cellphones and other handheld devices.
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) - is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future technology evolutions. Goals include improving spectral efficiency, lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum and refarmed spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open standards. The LTE air interface will be added to the specification in Release 8 and can be found in the 36-series of the 3GPP specifications.
Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) - is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. It is one of several forms of smart antenna technology.
Mobile Broadband - is the name used to describe various types of wireless high-speed internet access through a portable modem, telephone or other device. Various network standards may be used, such as GPRS, 3G, WiMAX, LTE UMTS/HSPA, EV-DO and some portable satellite-based systems.
NLOS - Non-Line of Sight. These radio systems can be used much more flexibly than LoS systems. They use RF penetration, and even take advantage of multipath to receive signals from obstructed transmitters.
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. OFDM's spread spectrum technique distributes the data over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this technique, which prevents the demodulators from seeing other frequencies than their own. OFDM is not a standard way of providing 3G data, so solutions using this technology are usually proprietary.
Portability - Portability and portable data access refer to the ability to access connectivity services while at a home location, at multiple other locations. Portability does not typically allow for access while moving a significant distance, and generally does not include roaming or handoff.
QoS - Quality of Service. The ability to define a level of performance in a data communications system. For example, ATM networks specify modes of service that ensure optimum performance for traffic such as realtime voice and video. QoS has become a major issue on the Internet as well as in enterprise networks, because voice and video are increasingly traveling over IP-based data networks that were not designed for continuous speech or video. A high QoS would ensure that the packets of data all arrive in time for undetectable re-assembly.
Radio Access Controller (RNC) - is a governing element in the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) and is responsible for control the Node Bs that are connected to it. The RNC carries out radio resource management, some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile. The RNC connects to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) in the Packet Switched Core Network.
Radio Access Network (RAN) - is part of a mobile Telecommunication system. It implements a radio access technology. Conceptually, it sits between the Mobile phone, and the core network (CN). The term RAN is typically used in regards to the GSM, UMTS, and associated family of standards.
Random-Access Memory (RAM) - is a form of computer data storage. Today it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order.
Radio Frequency - is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz.
ROI - Return on Investment. The monetary benefits derived from having invested in developing or revising a system.
SDIO - Secure Digital Input Output
SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node
Spectral Efficiency - The more data or voice calls an air interface can compress into a given bandwidth, the greater the spectral efficiency. CDMA has greater SE than GSM, which is in turn greater than AMPS.
SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface
TD-CDMA - Time Division - Code Division Multiple Access. An air interface that uses both of the leading compression schemes, and derives some of the benefits of both.
TDD - Time Division Duplexing. A transmission method that uses only one channel for transmitting and receiving, separating them by different time slots. No guard band is used. This increases spectral efficiency by eliminating the buffer band, but also increases flexibility in asynchronous applications. For example, if less traffic travels upstream, the time slice for that direction can be reduced, and reallocated to downstream traffic.
UE - User Equipment. Similar to CPE.
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. The ITU standard for 3G wireless phone systems. UMTS, which is part of IMT-2000, provides service in the 2GHz band and offers global roaming and personalized features. Designed as an evolutionary system for GSM network operators which will marry the benefits of CDMA with the interoperability benefits of GSM, multimedia data rates up to 2 Mbps are expected. There are three branches of the UMTS standard: TD-SCDMA, UMTS TD-CDMA, and W-CDMA. CDMA2000 is not UMTS.
USB - Universal Serial Bus. A hardware interface standard for low-speed peripherals including modem devices. It is Plug and play, attachable with power on, and is capable of providing a power supply to the associated device.
UTRAN - short for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, is a collective term for the Node B